11 Proven Team Effectiveness Models in 2024


Harnessing the power of team collaboration, individual performance, and balancing the relationship between these team members is critical for enterprises to maximize operational efficiency and employee productivity. 

Team effectiveness models enable leaders and managers to build, manage, understand, and improve teams – from their ability to achieve goals to fostering interpersonal relationships. 

In this article, we’ll dissect, analyze, and evaluate nine standard team effectiveness models found in enterprises. We’ll discuss the unique principles of each team effectiveness model, the pros and cons associated with each, and offer insights that help determine their compatibility with various team dynamics, company cultures, and organizational structures.

What are the best models for team effectiveness?

  1. GRPI Model
  2. The Hackman Model
  3. The Katzenback and Smith Model
  4. The T7 Model of Team Effectiveness
  5. The LaFasto and Larson Model
  6. The Lencioni Model
  7. The Robbins and Judge Model
  8. The Tuckman Model
  9. The Google Model
  10. Tuckman’s FSNP Model
  11. Salas, Dickinson, Converse, and Tannenbaum Model

What Is a Team Effectiveness Model?

A team effectiveness model is a structured management framework that enables leaders to improve productivity, collaboration, and overall team performance. Team effectiveness models outline key factors, behaviors, and processes influencing team dynamics and their ability to achieve goals and drive positive enterprise outcomes. 

These models offer strategies and techniques to maximize the potential of a team, fostering effective communication, efficient problem-solving, and employee accountability. In larger enterprise organizations, these models are critical for navigating complex team structures, aligning with organizational goals, and building a culture of continuous learning, improvement, and accountability.

In this context, understanding the landscape of business growth, particularly in rapidly evolving cities and industries, becomes crucial. For instance, regions like Wilmington and Provo have witnessed significant business growth, driven by unique industry trends and demographic shifts. This growth presents distinct challenges and opportunities for team management. 

Choosing the right team effectiveness model in such diverse economic contexts necessitates careful consideration of the specific growth trajectories and industry characteristics. Models that are adaptable, responsive to rapid changes, and tailored to the nuances of high-growth environments are more likely to be effective.


11 Best Team Effectiveness Models

Here are eleven of the most common and valuable models for team effectiveness that your organization can implement to drive accountability and improve employee performance:

1. GRPI Model

The GRPI model, an acronym for Goals, Roles, Processes, and Interpersonal Relationships, is a straightforward framework for assessing and improving team functionality. At its core, the model advocates for explicit goal setting, ensuring that all team members are aligned and moving in the same direction. This clarity in objectives provides a unified purpose and direction.

Roles within the team are another critical component of the GRPI model. By delineating clear roles, the model eliminates ambiguity and empowers team members to take ownership of their responsibilities. This clarity enhances individual contributions and fosters a sense of responsibility and accountability within the team.

Processes under the GRPI model are the guidelines and methods through which teams manage and execute tasks. Efficient processes are vital as they streamline team efforts and enhance productivity. The model encourages teams to establish and refine these processes continually, adapting to changing needs and challenges.

Lastly, the GRPI model emphasizes the quality of interpersonal relationships. Recognizing that the health of these relationships is fundamental to team success, the model encourages an environment of respect, collaboration, and mutual support. This focus on interpersonal dynamics is particularly beneficial for team cohesion and morale.

While simplicity and focus on fundamental aspects make the GRPI model highly accessible and practical — especially for smaller teams and newer organizations — it does have limitations. Its simplicity may not adequately address the complexities of larger, more diverse teams. Furthermore, the model’s emphasis on internal team dynamics means it might overlook external factors and environmental influences, which can be crucial in more dynamic settings.

2. The Hackman Model

The Hackman model offers a multi-faceted approach to team effectiveness, encompassing five key elements: real team, compelling direction, enabling structure, supportive context, and expert coaching. This model provides a holistic view of what makes teams function optimally within an organization.

A real team is the foundation of the Hackman Model. It emphasizes the importance of having a solid, committed group of individuals who are clear about their membership and are willing to work together towards shared goals. This focus on a cohesive team unit is crucial for a strong sense of community and purpose within the group.

Compelling direction is another critical aspect of the model. It involves setting clear, motivating, and challenging goals that guide the team’s efforts. This direction is about setting objectives and inspiring the team, making the goals worth pursuing, and aligning them with the organization’s broader vision.

The enabling structure component refers to the organizational and team structures that facilitate effective teamwork. This includes clear roles, well-designed tasks, and a conducive organizational environment that supports team functioning. Ensuring that teams have the right mix of skills and that tasks are structured to promote collaboration, the model sets the stage for optimal team performance.

Supportive context is about the environment in which the team operates. The model underscores the importance of having organizational support, including the necessary resources, information, and educational opportunities. 

Finally, expert coaching is a unique aspect of the Hackman Model. It highlights the role of coaching in developing team skills, facilitating team discussions, and helping teams overcome obstacles. This coaching is about providing expert advice and fostering a culture of continuous learning and improvement within the team.

While the Hackman Model’s comprehensive nature makes it highly effective in structured, stable environments, it also brings certain challenges. Its complexity and the breadth of elements it covers can make it time-consuming and resource-intensive to implement. Additionally, the model can be overwhelming for teams not used to such an in-depth approach. Therefore, it is particularly well-suited for organizations that have the resources and commitment to invest in a thorough, holistic approach to team development.

3. The Katzenbach and Smith Model

The Katzenbach and Smith Model, a pivotal framework for team effectiveness, centers on five principal elements: small size, complementary skills, common purpose, performance goals, and mutual accountability. This model offers a nuanced approach to team building and performance, emphasizing the balance between individual skills and collective purpose.

In this model, team size is deliberately kept small to foster closer collaboration and communication. This approach ensures that each member can significantly contribute and that decision-making remains agile. For business leaders and HR professionals, understanding the optimal team size is crucial in maintaining efficiency and ensuring that each member’s voice is heard.

Complementary skills are a cornerstone of the Katzenbach and Smith Model. It values a diverse mix of abilities and perspectives within a team, recognizing that a blend of technical, problem-solving, and interpersonal skills drives success. This diversity not only enhances team performance but also fosters a culture of learning and mutual respect.

The model’s emphasis on a common purpose aligns team members towards a unified goal. It encourages developing a clear, shared vision that resonates with every team member, fostering a strong sense of commitment and collaboration. Performance goals under this model are concrete and measurable, enabling teams to track progress and stay focused on results.

Mutual accountability, a key element of the model, promotes a culture where team members hold themselves and each other responsible for the team’s outcomes. This accountability provides a sense of ownership and encourages team members to support one another in achieving collective goals.

While the Katzenbach and Smith Model excels in balancing skills and driving a shared sense of purpose, it may face challenges in larger teams or when team members have divergent goals. Also, it demands a high level of commitment from all members, which can be challenging to cultivate in some organizational cultures. This model is particularly effective for teams that require a diverse mix of skills and a strong collaborative ethos.

4. The T7 Model of Team Effectiveness

The T7 Model of Team Effectiveness offers a comprehensive perspective on team dynamics, encapsulating seven elements: Thrust, Trust, Talent, Teaming, Task Skills, Team Skills, and Tenacity. This model provides a multifaceted view of what drives team success, emphasizing both task-related and interpersonal factors.

Thrust is about the team’s shared purpose and objectives. You must ensure that your team has a clear, compelling direction that motivates and unites members. Trust, as the second element, is the foundation of effective teamwork. Building a culture of trust within your team enables open communication and risk-taking, essential for innovation and problem-solving.

Talent in the T7 model refers to the individual capabilities within the team. As a leader, focusing on harnessing diverse talents and aligning them with the team’s objectives is vital. Teaming, the fourth element, looks at how team members collaborate and work together, highlighting the importance of effective interpersonal interactions and collaboration strategies.

Task skills are specific abilities related to the team’s work. Ensuring that your team possesses the necessary technical and functional skills is key to achieving objectives. Team skills, on the other hand, are about the ability of team members to work well together, including communication, conflict resolution, and collaborative skills.

The final element, tenacity, represents the team’s resilience and persistence in the face of challenges. Cultivating a culture of tenacity involves encouraging a persistent, goal-oriented mindset and fostering the ability to overcome obstacles.

The T7 model, with its focus on both task and social elements, is ideal for teams in dynamic and competitive environments. However, its complexity in understanding and applying all seven elements requires continuous assessment and adjustment. This model may pose challenges for less mature teams or those unfamiliar with such an in-depth approach to team dynamics.

5. The LaFasto and Larson Model

The LaFasto and Larson Model takes a unique approach to team effectiveness by focusing on four key areas: team member characteristics, team relationships, team problem-solving, and team leadership. This model is particularly beneficial in understanding and improving the interpersonal dynamics within teams.

Team member characteristics are fundamental to this model. Identifying and leveraging individual strengths and ensuring a good mix of personalities and skills is crucial. This diversity not only enriches team discussions but also enhances problem-solving capabilities.

Team relationships under this model are central to team success. They emphasize the quality of interactions among team members, advocating for a culture of open communication and mutual respect. Building strong, trusting relationships within your team can significantly boost morale and productivity.

The model’s focus on team problem-solving highlights the importance of effective collaborative strategies. Encouraging teams to engage in constructive dialogue and leverage diverse viewpoints leads to more innovative solutions and better decision-making.

Team leadership in the LaFasto and Larson Model is about guiding and facilitating the team towards its objectives. It requires you to be an enabler, creating an environment where team members feel valued and empowered to contribute their best.

While the model offers valuable insights into team dynamics, its less pronounced emphasis on external factors and changing environments may limit its applicability in more dynamic settings. It is most effective in teams where interpersonal dynamics are strong and where clear communication and effective leadership are present.

6. The Lencioni Model

The Lencioni model takes a unique approach by focusing on identifying and addressing five common dysfunctions within teams: absence of trust, fear of conflict, lack of commitment, avoidance of accountability, and inattention to results. This model is particularly useful for diagnosing and resolving team issues.

The absence of trust, the first dysfunction, is seen as the foundation of team problems. Building trust within your team is essential, as it fosters open communication and vulnerability, allowing for more genuine team interactions.

Fear of conflict is another critical dysfunction. In the Lencioni Model, healthy conflict is viewed as beneficial: encouraging open, respectful disagreements can lead to better decision making and more innovative solutions.

Lack of commitment is the third dysfunction. Gaining team buy-in and ensuring that all members are committed to team decisions is vital for moving forward effectively and cohesively.

Avoidance of accountability, the fourth dysfunction, can undermine team effectiveness. Establishing a culture where team members hold each other accountable for their actions and contributions is crucial for maintaining high standards and performance.

Finally, inattention to results, the last dysfunction, focuses on the importance of team outcomes over individual goals. Aligning the team towards collective results ensures that personal agendas do not derail the team’s progress.

The Lencioni model is highly effective for teams facing internal conflicts and challenges. However, it may be perceived as negative or problem-focused and requires a high level of openness and vulnerability from team members.

7. The Robbins and Judge Model

The Robbins and Judge model provides a comprehensive view of team effectiveness by considering four elements: context, composition, work design, and processes. This model is particularly suited for large, diverse organizations due to its holistic approach.

Context in this model refers to the external environment in which the team operates. Understanding the broader organizational and environmental factors that impact your team is critical for ensuring that the team’s efforts are aligned with external realities.

Composition deals with the makeup of the team. A diverse mix of skills, personalities, and backgrounds can greatly enhance the team’s creativity and problem-solving abilities.

Work design in the Robbins and Judge model focuses on the nature of the team’s tasks. Designing work that is engaging, meaningful, and well-structured is essential for team motivation and effectiveness.

Lastly, processes are about the interactions and behaviors within the team. Developing efficient processes and fostering a culture of continuous improvement can significantly enhance team productivity and cohesion.

While the Robbins and Judge model offers a flexible and comprehensive approach to team effectiveness, its complexity may pose challenges in terms of implementation and risk of information overload. It is most effective in organizations that can dedicate the time and resources to thoroughly understand and apply its principles.

8. The Tuckman Model

The Tuckman Model, a classic in the field of team dynamics, outlines a clear progression through four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing. This model is instrumental for leaders in understanding and guiding team development.

In the forming stage, teams come together and start to understand their purpose and boundaries. Here, the role of the leader is crucial in setting the tone, providing direction, and establishing a positive atmosphere.

The storming phase often involves conflicts and power struggles as team members begin to assert their individualities and challenge the team’s mission. Navigating this stage requires adept conflict management skills, ensuring that disagreements lead to constructive outcomes.

During the norming stage, teams establish agreements and standards. This phase is about solidifying relationships and norms, where your focus should be on reinforcing positive behaviors and fostering team cohesion.

In the performing stage, teams reach optimal functionality. The leader’s role here shifts to maintenance, ensuring that the team continues to perform efficiently while providing opportunities for growth and development.

While the Tuckman Model provides a clear roadmap for team development, it assumes a linear progression which may not always occur in reality. Teams might cycle back to earlier stages, and individual differences within teams can impact this progression. This model is particularly useful for teams undergoing developmental stages and for leaders who need a framework to anticipate and manage team challenges.

9. The Google Model

The Google Model, derived from the tech giant’s extensive research on team effectiveness, emphasizes five key factors: psychological safety, dependability, structure & clarity, meaning, and impact. This model is especially relevant in innovative and creative environments.

Psychological safety, the cornerstone of this model, is about creating an environment where team members feel safe to take risks and express their thoughts without fear of negative consequences.

Dependability in the Google model refers to the reliability of team members in fulfilling their commitments. Building a team where members can depend on each other strengthens team performance. Structure and clarity involve clear roles, plans, and goals. Ensuring that your team has a well-defined structure and understands its objectives is crucial for effective functioning.

Meaning and impact are about the work’s significance to team members and the broader organization. Encouraging a sense of purpose and ensuring that team efforts have a meaningful impact can greatly enhance motivation and engagement.

While the Google Model is highly effective in promoting team autonomy and a sense of purpose, it requires a supportive organizational culture and may be challenging to measure and quantify in terms of impact. This model is most effective in environments where innovation and creative thinking are valued.

10. Tuckman’s FSNP Model

Tuckman’s FSNP Model is a simplified version of the original Tuckman Model, focusing on four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing. This streamlined model offers a clear perspective on the early stages of team development.

The forming stage, similar to the original model, involves team members getting to know each other and understanding their roles. A leader’s guidance is essential in providing clarity and direction.

In the storming phase, the emphasis is again on managing differences and conflicts constructively. The leader’s role involves facilitating open communication and helping team members navigate conflicts.

The norming stage in the FSNP model is about establishing norms and standards for team behavior. Here, encouraging commitment and consensus among team members is crucial for building a strong team foundation.

Finally, the performing stage is where the team achieves high efficiency and effectiveness. The focus should shift towards maintaining team performance and fostering continuous improvement.

The FSNP Model, while simpler and more straightforward than the extended Tuckman Model, does not include the adjourning stage for team dissolution. It is particularly useful for understanding the dynamics of newly formed teams and for leaders seeking a basic framework to guide team development.

11. Salas, Dickinson, Converse, and Tannenbaum Model

The Salas, Dickinson, Converse, and Tannenbaum model presents a dynamic approach to team effectiveness, emphasizing adaptability and real-time interactions. This model is particularly relevant for teams operating in high-pressure and rapidly changing environments.

Central to this model is the concept of team leadership, which involves guiding and coordinating team efforts in a way that is responsive to evolving situations. A leader’s ability to adapt and make quick decisions is crucial in such environments.

Mutual performance monitoring is another key element, where team members continually assess the work of their peers to ensure high standards and collective success. Encouraging a culture where team members are comfortable giving and receiving constructive feedback is essential.

Backup behavior, or the ability of team members to support and step in for each other, enhances the team’s resilience and flexibility. Fostering a collaborative spirit where members are willing to share responsibilities and assist each other can significantly boost team performance.

Adaptability in this model refers to the team’s ability to adjust its strategies and actions in response to changing conditions. A leader must promote a mindset of flexibility and continuous learning, which is vital for navigating uncertain and complex situations.

Finally, team orientation is about the collective focus of the team, prioritizing the group’s objectives over individual goals. Building a strong sense of team identity and shared purpose is key to achieving this.

While the Salas, Dickinson, Converse, and Tannenbaum Model offers a robust framework for dynamic environments, it requires a high level of cohesion and maturity within the team. It is best suited for teams that are experienced and well-versed in working in high-stress, fluid situations.

How to Choose an Enterprise Team Effectiveness Model

How do you choose the best team effectiveness model for your organization? While every enterprise will have contextual challenges and needs, you can follow the following best practices to help select the right model for your team.

  • Align your model with your organizational goals and culture. Ensure the chosen model supports your strategic objectives and resonates with your organization’s ethos. This alignment is key to ensuring that the model enhances — rather than conflicts with — your existing practices and values.
  • Understanding your team’s dynamics and structure is also vital. Assess the team’s composition, including size, diversity, and developmental stage. This understanding will help you choose a model that caters to your team’s specific needs and characteristics.
  • Flexibility and scalability are important factors to consider. Opt for a model that can adapt to changes in team size, structure, and evolving business needs. A model that can scale with your organization’s growth will provide long-term benefits and sustainability.
  • Integrating the model with existing processes seamlessly is another crucial consideration. Aim for a smooth adoption of the model by aligning it with current workflows and systems. This integration minimizes operational disruption and facilitates a more effective implementation.
  • Establish clear feedback mechanisms and performance metrics. Setting up specific metrics for assessing team performance and regular feedback channels enables continuous improvement and practical evaluation of the model’s impact. These mechanisms will help you gauge the model’s success and make necessary adjustments to optimize team performance.
Enable your team members with contextual guidance and self-help support on their tasks and workflows with Whatfix

With a digital adoption platform (DAP) like Whatfix, organizations can enable their employees to maximize their productivity and performance with contextual in-app guidance and real-time support on the enterprise software and related digital processes they use every day.

With Whatfix, create in-app guided Tours and Task Lists to onboard new employees to your core enterprise software and quickly get them up to proficiency.

personalized onboarding

With Flows, guide employees through your complex digital processes with role-based walkthroughs. Use Smart Tips to provide additional contextual and information, or to nudge employees to take a specific action. With Ready to Send, ensure your data is entered correct, completely, and in the right format with moment of need support.


Self Help provides your employees in-app access to a resource center containing all your team processes, help documentation, SOPs, videos, training and onboarding materials, team goals, and more.


With Whatfix Analytics, track custom events and analyze end-user behavior to identify areas of technology friction, understand how employees are using your applications and processes, create optimal user flows and journeys, segment users into role-based cohorts, monitor license usage and digital adoption, and more.

What Is Whatfix?
Whatfix is a digital adoption platform that provides organizations with a no-code editor to create in-app guidance on any application that looks 100% native. With Whatfix, create interactive walkthroughs, product tours, task lists, smart tips, field validation, self-help wikis, hotspots, and more. Understand how users are engaging with your applications with advanced product analytics.
Like this article? Share it with your network.
Subscribe to the Whatfix newsletter now!
Table of Contents
Software Clicks With Whatfix
Whatfix's digital adoption platform empowers your employees, customers, and end-users with in-app guidance, reinforcement learning, and contextual self-help support to find maximum value from software.

Thank you for subscribing!

Sign up for the Whatfix blog
Join 300,000+ monthly readers learning how to drive software adoption by signing up to receive the latest best practices and resources.

Thank you for subscribing!

Subscribe to the Digital Adoption Insider now!
Join thousands of leaders from companies like Amazon, Caterpillar, Delta, and Oracle who subscribe to our monthly newsletter.